OXYGEN INJECTION

Chinning Bar
Jim Skipper, Jr. on the Chinning Bar
Oxygen consumed by the crew was replaced from the facility certified breathing oxygen system. Flow was manually controlled and measured with a calibrated Rota meter. Each time a change in flow was required test personnel recorded the time and settings. Injection flow was controlled to maintain the oxygen level within +/- 0.5% of it initial value. A total of 177.6 pounds of oxygen was injected; 83.3 pounds during the eight days the chamber was occupied by women and 94.3 pounds during the eight days the men were in the chamber. Based on 10,000 BTU heat output for l.5 pounds of oxygen consumed, the total metabolic heat load produced during the 16-day test was 1,184,000 BTU; 7,400 BTU/day; 3,083 BTU/hr; and 440 BTU/hr/person. The women averaged 413 BTU/hr and the men, 468 BTU/hr.

The carbon dioxide removed by the Regenerable CO2 Removal Unit was directly proportional to the oxygen consumed based on a metabolic factor of carbon dioxide produced in the body relative to the oxygen consumed.

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WASTE MANAGEMENT AND HYGIENE

Urine Funnel
The Waste Management Area

Commode Seat
Imagination
The waste management and hygiene systems were located in the Shuttle airlock compartment of the Shuttle cabin mockup facility (ETA). Solid biological waste was collected in plastic bags lining the commode stand shown in the upper photograph. The bags were tied and stored in biological wasted disposal bags inside designated biological waste transfer containers.

In the lower photograph from the left are a roll of toilet tissue, an emergency air pack (upper left), crewmember Carla Anderson simulating use of the commode seat, the sink with ambient temperature water dispenser, lockers, and biological waste transfer container.

The upper photograph shows crewmember Heather Engle holding the urine funnel. Each crewmember was provided a personal plastic liner for the funnel. The liners were rinsed in place in the funnel after each use. The rinse water served to flush the urine drain line and to prevent gases from returning from the exterior urine storage tank. The tank was vented to the test compartment through and activated charcoal filter. Drain problems were identified during pretest operations and were corrected before the test started. Draining the storage tank was a chronic problem during the test. This system is described in drawing Z24-M02200.

The sink is to Carla’s left in the photograph. It was the same unit used in the 56-day SMEAT in the 20-ft chamber in 1972. The sink drain clogged two times during the test resulting in some water spillage. Shaving cream was identified in the waste water drained after the clog was cleared. The crewmembers used hot water from the galley to supplement the ambient temperature water available at the sink.

The door of the storage cabinet above the sink was a polished steel mirror. A little water leaked from the sink and the holding tank beneath it and got into the locker below the holding tank.

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Ventilation Ducts
Ventilation for the Waste Management Area

Locker
Personal Storage Locker
The ARS (Atmosphere Revitalization System) outlet and inlet ventilation ducts are shown going through the airlock hatch in the upper photo. The privacy curtain is partially covering the hatch. The return air duct was an extension of the fight WMS (Waste Management System) compartment return duct. These ducts didn’t provide adequate ventilation of the airlock. Crew members complained of the odor any time a solid waste storage container was opened. In the future the containers will be vented to vacuum through the simulated wet trash vent system.

Cotton towels and wash cloths were supplied. Flight hygiene kits were obtained through the FEPC. Additional hair brushes and packaged wet cleansing towelettes were provided from conventional sources. The lower photograph shows a typical individual’s stowed locker. The locker partitions were designed and installed for this test.

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SLEEPING ARRANGEMENTS

Women's Sleeping Arrangements
Bunks and Pallet in the Mid-Deck Area

Mid-deck Bunks
The men put mattresses on the floor.
One of the main concerns in preparation for this test was providing additional horizontal surface area for sleeping in 1-G. These photographs show the bunk structures installed at the forward bulkhead and on the starboard side to provide areas for four of the crewmembers. Two crewmembers slept on mattresses on the middeck floor (or on one of the lounge chairs as in the upper photograph) and the other slept on the floor of the flight deck. The mattresses were three-inch thick closed-cell, flame resistant foam blocks covered with flame resistant durette covers. Pillow, pillow cases, sheets and blankets were also of approved flame resistant fabrics. Flame resistant sound deadening curtains were draped along two sides of the bunk area.

In the upper photograph from the left are galley water heater, two emergency air packs, stainless steel cups, blue plastic drink containers, Stentofon station, MRE heater, television camera, food preparation shelf, food storage and transfer container, stainless steel vacuum insulated containers, stainless steel drink containers, and the inner hatch of the equipment lock located above the shelf.

The refrigerator is visible in the lower photograph under the food preparation shelf at the foot of the lower forward bunk.

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Flight Deck Sleeping Area
Sleeping on Mattress on Flight Deck Floor

Sleeping by the Door
Occasionally a mattress was placed near the ETA hatch.

The upper photograph shows the configuration for sleeping on the flight deck. The lower photograph shows an additional middeck sleeping location. Also in the lower photograph are a set of lockers, the low light television camera, and the air flow blocking curtain at the ETA (Shuttle Environmental Test Article) entry hatch. The curtain is open in this photograph and was only closed during the scheduled crew transfers at the test mid-point and twice during the test for crew member substitutions. The double curtain prevented a mass flow of air into or out of the chamber during crew transfers thus maintaining the test atmosphere.

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COMMUNICATIONS and ENTERTAINMENT

Flight Deck Computer Station
Using the Laptop Computer in its aluminum protective case.

The television set
The TV was in a sealed container
Portable computers were used for communication and for entertainment as well as for taking surveys and doing cognitive testing. Manned-Systems Division requested that all crewmembers complete a compute survey form to provide an evaluation of the flight food provided by M-SD. Krug International was allowed to perform cognitive testing of the crewmembers using a computer cognitive testing program. This testing added structured activity to the crews’ schedules and provided a means for evaluating the effectiveness and ease of use of the program, which was intended for eventual use on future long-duration missions with confined crews. The upper photograph shows the location of the computer workstation on the flight deck. The lower photograph is another view of the entertainment television monitor and the speaker box below it. The crews usually wanted the television on and recorded material was provided to supplement standard broadcast material. The entertainment audio system was difficult to operate and was often of poor quality. It dropped out completely several times and was difficult to restore.

Stentofon Communication Station
Listening to instructions from the control room.
A Stentofon 2-way VOX communication station was installed in the ETA at the location shown in the upper photograph. The VOX system allowed crewmembers to respond immediately when called and to continue communication without interruption of activities. It had been determined during pretest operations that the conventional communication system was not suited to this sort of test operation.

The closed circuit television provided both entertainment and visual communication. The lower photograph shows the view of the control room as seen by the crewmembers. STS-47 backup crewmembers were visiting to encourage the test crew members.
View from the Control Room
The crewmembers' view of the control room.

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Other Space Test Related Articles on My Web Site
Space Suit Test Subject - I was a volunteer test subject for the Gemini EVA spacesuit test before Ed White's EVA. The test was conducted at conditions equal to the cold vacuum of space.
SMEAT - In the summer of 1972, NASA’s Manned Spacecraft Center (as the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center was then called) in Houston, Texas, conducted a 56-day test in a vacuum chamber test to evaluate equipment and procedures proposed for use in the Skylab missions.
STS-1 Columbia Post-flight EMU Test - Following the first flight (STS-1) of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia commanded by John Young and piloted by Bob Crippen (SMEAT Test with Crippen) , our division chief announced that we would test one of the space suits (EMUs) from the flight to show that if had it actually been required for an emergency EVA during the flight, it would have worked properly and also that the rigors of flight had not damaged it.
Space Women Firsts - There probably was no formal declaration of the space race, but from the time the first manmade object was put into orbit around the earth by the U.S.S.R, each 'first' was recorded and placed in someone's record book. There are all sorts of firsts: first living creature in space, first man to orbit the earth, first man to perform an EVA and so on. A brief review of the firsts credited to women is given here with a personal account related to one of them.
Orlan Suit Test-Zvezda, Moscow - The whole purpose for my trip to Moscow was to observe an actual manned test of the refurbished Orlan spacesuit that was brought back from the Mir by the Shuttle. These photos show the vacuum chamber (vac-camera), the control consoles, the Orlan suit suspended in the chamber, and Gennady, the expert suit engineer and test subject.
Zvezda Space Museum - Several photos of the displays with commentary. Zvezda built the capsule and life support system for the first dogs in space. There was a big display about that. All the early space suits were diplayed. The spacecraft and airlock from which the world's fist EVA was made was on display.

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Posted: 2/1/06